Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The Company’s consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”). Any reference in these notes to applicable guidance is meant to refer to the authoritative U.S. GAAP as found in the ASC and Accounting Standards Updates (“ASU”) of the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”).
In connection with preparing for its initial public offering, the Company effected a one-for-3.75 reverse stock split of the Company’s common stock. The reverse stock split became effective on June 17, 2016. The par value and authorized shares of common stock and convertible preferred stock were not adjusted as a result of the reverse stock split. All share and per share amounts in the financial statements and notes thereto have been retroactively adjusted for all periods presented to give effect to this reverse stock split, including reclassifying an amount equal to the reduction in par value of common stock to additional paid-in capital. The financial statements have also been retroactively adjusted to reflect adjustments to the conversion price for each series of convertible preferred stock effected in connection with the reverse stock split.
Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Syros Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiary, Syros Securities Corporation, which is a Massachusetts corporation formed by the Company in December 2014 to exclusively engage in buying, selling and holding securities on its own behalf. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts in the financial statements and accompanying notes. Management considers many factors in selecting appropriate financial accounting policies and in developing the estimates and assumptions that are used in the preparation of the financial statements. Management must apply significant judgment in this process. In addition, other factors may affect estimates, which include, but are not limited to, expected business and operational changes, sensitivity and volatility associated with the assumptions used in developing estimates and whether historical trends are expected to be representative of future trends. Management’s estimation process often may yield a range of potentially reasonable estimates and management must select an amount that falls within that range of reasonable estimates. On an ongoing basis, the Company’s management evaluates its estimates, which include, but are not limited to, estimates related to revenue recognition, stock-based compensation expense, accrued expenses and income taxes. Actual results may differ from those estimates or assumptions.
Operating segments are identified as components of an enterprise about which separate discrete financial information is available for evaluation by the chief operating decision maker, or decision-making group, in making decisions on how to allocate resources and assess performance. The Company's chief operating decision maker is the Chief Executive Officer. The Company and the chief operating decision maker view the Company's operations and manage its business in one operating segment. The Company operates only in the United States.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid instruments that have original maturities of three months or less when acquired to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents, which consist of money market funds that invest in U.S. Treasury obligations, as well as overnight repurchase agreements, are stated at fair value. The Company maintains its bank accounts at one major financial institution.
Off-Balance Sheet Risk and Concentrations of Credit Risk
The Company has no financial instruments with off-balance sheet risk, such as foreign exchange contracts, option contracts, or other foreign hedging arrangements. Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk primarily consist of cash equivalents and marketable securities. Under its investment policy, the Company limits amounts invested in such securities by credit rating, maturity, industry group, investment type and issuer, except for securities issued by the U.S. government. The Company is not exposed to any significant concentrations of credit risk from these financial instruments. The goals of the Company’s investment policy, in order of priority, are safety and preservation of principal and liquidity of investments sufficient to meet cash flow requirements.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
ASC 820, Fair Value Measurement (“ASC 820”), established a fair value hierarchy for instruments measured at fair value that distinguishes between assumptions based on market data (observable inputs) and the Company’s own assumptions (unobservable inputs). Observable inputs are inputs that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability based on market data obtained from sources independent of the Company. Unobservable inputs are inputs that reflect the Company’s assumption about the inputs that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability, and are developed based on the best information available in the circumstances.
ASC 820 identified fair value as the exchange price, or exit price, representing the amount that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants. As a basis for considering market participant assumptions in fair value measurements, ASC 820 established a three-tier fair value hierarchy that distinguishes between the following:
Level 1—Quoted market prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2—Inputs other than quoted prices included within Level 1 that are either directly or indirectly observable, such as quoted market prices, interest rates and yield curves.
Level 3—Unobservable inputs developed using estimates or assumptions developed by the Company, which reflect those that a market participant would use.
To the extent that the valuation is based on models or inputs that are less observable or unobservable in the market, the determination of fair value requires more judgment. Accordingly, the degree of judgment exercised by the Company in determining fair value is greatest for instruments categorized as Level 3. A financial instrument’s level within the fair value hierarchy is based on the lowest level of any input that is significant to the fair value measurement.
The carrying amounts reflected in the consolidated balance sheets for cash and cash equivalents, prepaid expenses, other current assets, accounts payable, accrued expenses and deferred revenue approximate their fair values, due to their short-term nature.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment consists of laboratory equipment, computer equipment, furniture and fixtures and leasehold improvements, all of which are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation. Expenditures for maintenance and repairs that do not improve or extend the lives of the respective assets are recorded to expense as incurred. Major betterments are capitalized as additions to property and equipment. Depreciation and amortization is recognized over the estimated useful lives of the assets using the straight-line method.
Construction-in-progress is stated at cost, which relates to the cost of research equipment not yet placed into service. No depreciation expense is recorded on construction-in-progress until such time as the relevant assets are completed and put into use.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The Company continually evaluates long-lived assets for potential impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value of the assets may not be recoverable. Recoverability is measured by comparing the book values of the assets to the expected future net undiscounted cash flows that the assets are expected to generate. If such assets are considered to be impaired, the impairment to be recognized is measured by the amount by which the book values of the assets exceed their fair value. The Company has not recognized any impairment losses from inception through December 31, 2018.
Other Long-Term Assets
At December 31, 2018, other long-term assets consisted of advance payments made to the contract research organization responsible for conducting the Company’s clinical trials of SY-1425 and SY-1365. At December 31, 2017, other long-term assets primarily consisted of deferred issuance costs, which included direct and incremental legal and accounting fees related to a shelf registration statement filed in July 2017, as well as advance payments made to the contract research organization responsible for conducting the Company’s clinical trials of SY-1425 and SY-1365.
To date the Company’s only revenue has consisted of collaboration and license revenue. The Company has not generated any revenue from product sales and does not expect to generate any revenue from product sales for the foreseeable future. For the year ended December 31, 2018, the Company recognized approximately $2.1 million of revenue, all of which was attributable to its target discovery collaboration with Incyte. For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, the Company recognized $1.1 million and $0.3 million of revenue, respectively, all of which was attributable to a research agreement with a multinational pharmaceutical company that expired in accordance with its terms in March 2017.
On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC 606”) using the modified retrospective method and applied the new standard to contracts that have been not completed as of the January 1, 2018 adoption date. As of the January 1, 2018 adoption date, the Company did not have any contracts that were not yet completed.
ASC 606 applies to all contracts with customers, except for contracts that are within the scope of other standards, such as leases, insurance, collaboration arrangements and financial instruments. Under ASC 606, an entity recognizes revenue when its customer obtains control of promised goods or services, in an amount that reflects the consideration the entity expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. To determine revenue recognition for arrangements that an entity determines are within the scope of ASC 606, the entity performs the following five steps:
The Company only applies the five-step model to contracts when it is probable that the entity will collect the consideration it is entitled to in exchange for the goods or services it transfers to the customer. At contract inception, once the contract is determined to be within the scope of ASC 606, the Company assesses the goods or services promised within each contract and determines those that are performance obligations, and assesses whether each promised good or service is distinct. The Company then recognizes as revenue the amount of the transaction price that is allocated to the respective performance obligation when (or as) the performance obligation is satisfied.
From time to time, the Company may enter into agreements that are within the scope of ASC 606. The terms of these arrangements typically include payment to the Company of one or more of the following: non-refundable, up-front license fees; development, regulatory and commercial milestone payments; and royalties on net sales of licensed products. Each of these payments results in license and collaboration revenues, except for revenues from royalties on net sales of licensed products, which will be classified as royalty revenues.
The Company analyzes its collaboration arrangements to assess whether they are within the scope of ASC 808, Collaborative Arrangements (“ASC 808”), to determine whether such arrangements involve joint operating activities performed by parties that are both active participants in the activities and exposed to significant risks and rewards dependent on the commercial success of such activities. This assessment is performed throughout the life of the arrangement based on changes in the responsibilities of all parties in the arrangement. For collaboration arrangements within the scope of ASC 808 that contain multiple elements, the Company first determines which elements of the collaboration are deemed to be within the scope of ASC 808 and those that are more reflective of a vendor-customer relationship and therefore within the scope of ASC 606. For elements of collaboration arrangements that are accounted for pursuant to ASC 808, an appropriate recognition method is determined and applied consistently, generally by analogy to ASC 606. For those elements of the arrangement that are accounted for pursuant to ASC 606, the Company applies the five-step model described above.
Prior to the adoption of ASC 606, the Company recognized revenue in accordance with ASC Topic 605, Revenue Recognition (“ASC 605”). Accordingly, revenue was recognized when all of the following criteria are met:
Amounts received prior to satisfying the revenue recognition criteria were recognized as deferred revenue in the Company’s consolidated balance sheets. Amounts expected to be recognized as revenue within the 12 months following the balance sheet date are classified in current liabilities. Amounts not expected to be recognized as revenue within the 12 months following the balance sheet date are classified as deferred revenue, net of current portion.
The Company analyzed arrangements with multiple deliverables based on the guidance in ASC Topic 605-25, Revenue Recognition—Multiple Element Arrangements (“ASC 605-25”). Pursuant to the guidance in ASC 605-25, the Company evaluated multiple element arrangements to determine (1) the deliverables included in the arrangement and (2) whether the individual deliverables represent separate units of accounting or whether they must be accounted for as a combined unit of accounting. This evaluation involves subjective determinations and requires management to make judgements about the individual deliverables and whether such deliverables are separate from other aspects of the contractual relationship. Deliverables were considered separate units of accounting provided that: (i) the delivered item(s) has value to the customer on a standalone basis and (ii) if the arrangement includes a general right of return relative to the delivered item(s), delivery or performance of the undelivered item(s) is considered probable and substantially within control of the Company.
The Company recognized arrangement consideration allocated to each unit of accounting when all of the revenue recognition criteria in ASC 605 are satisfied for that particular unit of accounting. In the event that a deliverable did not represent a separate unit of accounting, the Company recognized revenue from the combined unit of accounting over the contractual or estimated performance period for the undelivered items, which is typically the term of its research and development obligations. If there was no discernible pattern of performance or objectively measurable performance measures do not exist, then the Company recognized revenue under the arrangement on a straight-line basis over the period it expects to complete its performance obligations or upon completion when the final act is of such significance to the overall arrangement that performance has not substantively occurred until the completion of that act. Conversely, if the pattern of performance over which the service is provided to the customer could not be determined and objectively measurable performance measures exist, then the Company recognizeed revenue under the arrangement using the proportional performance method.
Research and Development
Expenditures relating to research and development are expensed in the period incurred. Research and development expenses consist of both internal and external costs associated with the development of the Company’s gene control platform and product candidates. Research and development costs include salaries and benefits, materials and supplies, external research, preclinical and clinical development expenses, stock-based compensation expense and facilities costs. Facilities costs primarily include the allocation of rent, utilities, depreciation and amortization.
In certain circumstances, the Company is required to make nonrefundable advance payments to vendors for goods or services that will be received in the future for use in research and development activities. In such circumstances, the nonrefundable advance payments are deferred and capitalized, even when there is no alternative future use for the research and development, until related goods or services are provided.
The Company records accruals for estimated ongoing research costs. When evaluating the adequacy of the accrued liabilities, the Company analyzes progress of the work being performed, including the phase or completion of the event, invoices received and costs. Significant judgements and estimates may be made in determining the accrued balances at the end of any reporting period. Actual results could differ from the Company’s estimates.
The Company may in-license the rights to develop and commercialize product candidates. For each in-license transaction the Company evaluates whether it has acquired processes or activities along with inputs that would be sufficient to constitute a “business” as defined under U.S. GAAP. A “business” as defined under U.S. GAAP consists of inputs and processes applied to those inputs that have the ability to create outputs. Although businesses usually have outputs, outputs are not required for an integrated set of activities to qualify as a business. When the Company determines that it has not acquired sufficient processes or activities to constitute a business, any up-front payments, as well as milestone payments, are immediately expensed as acquired research and development in the period in which they are incurred.
Stock-Based Compensation Expense
The Company accounts for its stock-based compensation awards in accordance with ASC 718, Compensation—Stock Compensation (“ASC 718”). ASC 718 requires all stock-based payments to employees and directors, including grants of restricted stock and stock options, to be recognized as expense in the consolidated statements of operations based on their grant date fair values. Grants of restricted stock and stock options to other service providers, referred to as non-employees, are required to be recognized as expense in the consolidated statements of operations based on their vesting date fair values. The Company estimates the fair value of options granted using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. Prior to June 30, 2016, the Company was a private company and, therefore, lacks Company-specific historical and implied volatility information. As a result, it estimates its expected stock volatility based on the historical volatility of a publicly traded set of peer companies and expects to continue to do so until such time as it has adequate historical data regarding the volatility of its own traded stock price. The expected term of the Company’s stock options has been determined utilizing the “simplified” method for awards that qualify as “plain-vanilla” options. The expected term of stock options granted to non-employees is equal to the contractual term of the option award. The risk-free interest rate is determined by reference to the U.S. Treasury yield curve in effect at the time of grant of the award for time periods approximately equal to the expected term of the award. Expected dividend yield is based on the fact that the Company has never paid cash dividends and does not expect to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. The Company uses the value of its common stock to determine the fair value of restricted stock awards.
The amount of stock-based compensation expense recognized during a period is based on the fair value of the portion of the awards that are ultimately expected to vest. The Company accounts for forfeitures as they occur instead of estimating forfeitures at the time of grant. Ultimately, the actual expense recognized over the vesting period will be for only those options that vest.
The Company expenses the fair value of its stock-based awards to employees on a straight-line basis over the associated service period, which is generally the vesting period. For stock-based awards granted to non-employees, stock-based compensation expense is recognized over the vesting period during which services are rendered by such non-employees. At the end of each financial reporting period prior to vesting, the fair value of these awards is remeasured using the then-current fair value of such awards.
For stock-based awards that contain performance-based milestones, the Company records stock-based compensation expense in accordance with the accelerated attribution model. Management evaluates when the achievement of a performance-based milestone is probable based on the expected satisfaction of the performance conditions as of the reporting date. For certain of the Company’s performance-based awards, notwithstanding any vesting in accordance with the achievement of performance-based milestones, such awards vest in full on the sixth anniversary of the vesting commencement date.
The Company accounts for income taxes in accordance with ASC Topic 740, Income Taxes (“ASC 740”). The Company recognizes deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been recognized in the Company’s financial statements or tax returns. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on differences between the financial statement carrying amounts and the tax bases of the assets and liabilities using the enacted tax rates in effect in the years in which the differences are expected to reverse. A valuation allowance against deferred tax assets is recorded if, based on the weight of the available evidence, it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.
The Company accounts for uncertain tax positions using a more-likely-than-not threshold for recognizing and resolving uncertain tax positions. The evaluation of uncertain tax positions is based on factors including, but not limited to, changes in the law, the measurement of tax positions taken or expected to be taken in tax returns, the effective settlement of matters subject to audit, new audit activity, and changes in facts or circumstances related to a tax position.
In December 2017, the SEC staff issued Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118 (“SAB 118”) to address the application of U.S. GAAP in situations when a registrant does not have the necessary information available, prepared, or analyzed (including computations) in reasonable detail to complete the accounting for certain income tax effects of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017. The Company has recognized the provisional tax impacts related the revaluation of deferred tax assets and liabilities and included these amounts in its financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2017. The Company has no foreign operations and, therefore, does not have an associated liability from the repatriation tax on accumulated earnings in the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act. The Company did not record any adjustments in the year ended December 31, 2018 to these provisional amounts that were material to the financial statements. As of December 31, 2018, the Company's accounting treatment is complete.
Net Loss per Share
Basic net loss per share applicable to common stockholders is calculated by dividing net loss applicable to common stockholders by the weighted average shares outstanding during the period, without consideration for common stock equivalents. Diluted net loss per share applicable to common stockholders is calculated by adjusting the weighted average shares outstanding for the dilutive effect of common stock equivalents outstanding for the period, determined using the treasury-stock method and the if-converted method. For purposes of the dilutive net loss per share applicable to common stockholders calculation, convertible preferred stock, stock options, and unvested restricted stock are considered to be common stock equivalents but are excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share applicable to common stockholders, as their effect would be anti-dilutive; therefore, basic and diluted net loss per share applicable to common stockholders were the same for all periods presented.
The following common stock equivalents were excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share applicable to common stockholders for the periods indicated because including them would have had an anti-dilutive effect.
The weighted average number of common shares used in net loss per share applicable to common stockholders on a basic and diluted basis were 32,656,237, 25,406,845 and 12,696,414 shares for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842) (“ASC 842”), which applies to all leases and will require lessees to record most leases on the balance sheet but recognize expense in a manner similar to the current standard. ASC 842 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018 and interim periods within those years and, as such, will be effective for the year ended December 31, 2019 for the Company. Entities are required to use a modified retrospective approach of adoption for leases that exist or are entered into after the beginning of the earliest comparative period in the financial statements. Full retrospective application is prohibited. The modified retrospective approach includes a number of optional practical expedients primarily focused on leases that commenced before the effective date of ASC 842, including continuing to account for leases that commence before the effective date in accordance with previous guidance, unless the lease is modified. In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-11, Leases (Topic 842): Targeted Improvements, which clarifies ASC 842 and provides companies with an optional transition method. The optional transition method allows for companies to adopt ASC 842 as of the January 1, 2019 adoption date and record a cumulative catch-up to retained earnings during the period of adoption. The Company anticipates adopting the new standard using the optional transition method and only presenting the right of use asset and lease liability as of the January 1, 2019 adoption date. The Company also anticipates electing the practical expedients as part of the adoption of ASC 842 and will not reassess the classification of leases executed prior to the January 1, 2019 adoption date. While the Company continues to evaluate the provisions of ASC 842 to determine how it will be affected, the primary effect of adopting the new standard is currently expected to be the recording of a right of use asset and lease liability for the current operating lease for its office and laboratory facility as of the January 1, 2019 adoption date.
In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-07, Compensation -Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting (“ASU 2018-07”). ASU 2018-07 aims to simplify the accounting for share-based payments to nonemployees by aligning it to the accounting for share-based payments to employees including determining the fair value of the award on the date of grant and recognizing the stock-based compensation expense as of the respective vesting date. The new standard also requires companies to elect to either measure the awards to nonemployees over an estimated expected term or contractual term as well as elect to estimate forfeitures or account for forfeitures as incurred. ASU 2018-07 is effective for fiscal years and interim periods within those fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption is permitted. ASU 2018-07 is to be adopted using a modified retrospective approach with a cumulative catch-up to retained earnings recorded for equity-classified awards for which a measurement date has not been established as of the date of adoption. The Company is currently in the process of evaluating the impact of ASU 2018-07, but does not anticipate ASU 2018-07 will have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-13, Fair Value Measurements (Topic 820) (“ASU 2018-13”), which provides for changes to the disclosure requirements for recurring and nonrecurring fair value measurements under Topic 820. ASU 2018-13 is effective for fiscal years and interim periods within those fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019. Provisions of ASU 2018-13 including changes in unrealized gains and losses, the range and weighted average of significant unobservable inputs used to develop Level 3 fair value measurements, and the narrative description of measurement uncertainty are required to be applied prospectively for only the most recent interim or annual period presented in the initial fiscal year of adoption. All other amendments in ASU 2018-13 should be applied retrospectively to all periods presented upon their effective date. Early adoption is permitted upon issuance of ASU 2018-13. The Company is currently in the process of evaluating the new standard but does not anticipate ASU 2018-13 will have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, (ASC 606) (“ASU 2014-09”). ASU 2014-09 amends the guidance for the recognition of revenue from contracts with customers to transfer goods and services. The FASB subsequently issued additional, clarifying standards to address issues arising from the implementation of the new revenue recognition standard. The new revenue recognition standard and clarifying standards require an entity to recognize revenue when control of promised goods or services is transferred to the customer at an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The Company adopted ASU 2014-09 as of January 1, 2018 and elected to adopt ASU 2014-09 using the modified retrospective approach and applied the standard only to contracts that have not been completed as of the January 1, 2018 adoption date. As of the January 1, 2018 adoption date, the Company did not have any contracts that were not yet completed and has applied the new standard to all future contracts executed. The adoption of ASU 2014-09 did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and related disclosures. During the year ended December 31, 2018, the Company entered into a target discovery collaboration with Incyte that is accounted for in accordance with ASU 2014-09, as discussed in Note 3. During the year ended December 31, 2018, the Company recognized $2.1 million related to the target discovery collaboration, compared to $2.1 million that would have been recognized in accordance with the previous revenue recognition policies of ASC 605.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230) (“ASU 2016-15”), which simplifies certain elements of cash flow classification. The new guidance is intended to reduce diversity of practice in how certain transactions are classified in the statement of cash flows and is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017. The Company adopted ASU 2016-15 on January 1, 2018. The adoption of ASU 2016-15 did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated statement of cash flows and related disclosures.
In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-18, Restricted Cash (“ASU 2016-18”). The amendments in ASU 2016-18 require an entity to reconcile and explain the period-over-period change in total cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash within its statements of cash flows. The Company adopted ASU 2016-18 on January 1, 2018 using the full retrospective approach. As a result of the adoption of ASU 2016-18, the Company included $0.9 million of restricted cash for the year ended December 31, 2018 and $0.5 million of restricted cash for each of the years ending December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015 in the ending balances of cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash in the Company’s consolidated statement of cash flows.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-01, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Clarifying the Definition of a Business (“ASU 2017-01”). The amended guidance clarifies the definition of a business with the objective of adding guidance to assist entities with evaluating whether transactions should be accounted for as acquisitions (or disposals) of assets or businesses. The Company adopted ASU 2017-01 on January 1, 2018 and will apply the guidance prospectively. The adoption of ASU 2017-01 did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.